The differential effects of cortical injury and retesting on equivalence reactions in the rat by Seymour Wapner

Cover of: The differential effects of cortical injury and retesting on equivalence reactions in the rat | Seymour Wapner

Published by The American psychological association, inc. in Evanston, Ill .

Written in English

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  • Animal intelligence.,
  • Brain.,
  • Rats.

Edition Notes

Book details

Statementby Seymour Wapner.
SeriesPsychological monographs;, vol. 57, no. 2; whole no. 262, 1944, Psychological monographs: general and applied ;, v. 57, no. 2.
LC ClassificationsBF1 .P8 vol. 57, no. 2
The Physical Object
Paginationiii, 59 p. incl. illus., tables.
Number of Pages59
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL6480022M
LC Control Number45000254

Download The differential effects of cortical injury and retesting on equivalence reactions in the rat

Acid phosphatase reaction in cortex of a rat which received a contusion injury ( g/cm) 15 days earlier. Reactive cells appear at the margin of a cavity extending through the cerebral cortex.

The double arrows outline the extent of the cavity which expands in the white by: This study compares the effects of a single bout of exercise (acute extenuating) with those promoted by an exercise training program (chronic), focusing on low-grade chronic inflammation profile and on oxidative stress status, using the obese ZDF rats as a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Cited by:   Neurotrophins strongly affect visual system development and plasticity.

However, the mode of delivery and targets of neurotrophin action are still under debate. For instance, cortical NT-4/5 (neurotrophin 4/5; Ntf4/5) was shown to rescue lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons from monocular deprivation-induced atrophy suggesting a retrograde action on thalamic by:   1.

Introduction. Glucocorticoids exert their actions directly on brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex that are enriched in glucocorticoid receptors and are important for long-term memory formation (de Kloet, Oitzl, & Joels, ).Evidence has emerged for rapid, non-genomic and transient effects of these receptors when expressed at the cell membrane in Cited by: 1.

Comparisons between recall levels following simple acoustic or visual tasks and the simultaneous visual-plus-acoustic task are not based upon equivalent amounts of interference within each modality. This research attempts to test more precisely the relationship between visual and acoustic interference by using a sequential rather than a simultaneous dual-distraction by:   The two main types of corticostriatal neurons are those that project only intratelencephalically (IT-type), the intrastriatal terminals of which are μm in mean diameter, and those that send their main axon into pyramidal tract and have a collateral projection to striatum (PT-type), the intrastriatal terminals of which are μm in mean diameter.

We used three approaches to. Auditory cortical responses to sounds are profoundly altered by preceding sounds. Using optogenetic inactivation and computational modeling, Phillips et al.

find that specific aspects of these changes are mediated by somatostatin-positive interneurons and parvalbumin-positive interneurons, which differentially alter the strength and frequency dependence of this forward suppression. Differential effects of acute cortisol administration on deep and shallow episodic memory traces: A study on healthy males David Cioncolonia,b, Giulia Gallic, Riccardo Mazzocchioc,⇑, Matteo Feurrac, Fabio Giovannellid, Emiliano Santarnecchic, Marco Bonifazie, Alessandro Rossic,e, Simone Rossic a U.O.P.

Professioni della Riabilitazione, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Siena, Italy. Electroencephalography and Cllmcal Neurophyslology.39 (Elsewer Scientific Pubhshmg Company. Amsterdam Pnnted m The Netherlands DIFFERENTIAL EFFECT OF TASK RELEVANCE ON EARLY AND LATE COMPONENTS OF CORTICAL AND SUBCORTICAL SOMATIC EVOKED POTENTIALS IN MAN MARCOS VELASCO AND FRANCISCO VELASCO.

Highlights Regular physical exercise enhanced recognition memory and decreased stress. Effects were only detected in participants who exercised on the final day of testing.

An acute, single bout of exercise did not affect memory. Improvements in memory were only apparent in BDNF Val homozygotes. Exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with mood/anxiety. Critical flicker frequency (CFF) threshold is a visual discrimination task designed to assess cortical neural arousal, where higher values are associated with increased information processing and improved cognitive function.

Previous studies using CFF assessments before and after exercise have only used one type of exercise (e.g., short, fatiguing, steady state, time to exhaustion, etc.). Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and long-term disability worldwide.

Although chronic disability is common after TBI, effective treatments remain elusive and chronic TBI pathophysiology is not well understood. Early after TBI, brain metabolism is disrupted due to unregulated ion release, mitochondrial damage, and interruption of molecular trafficking.

Reduced Cortical Thickness as an Outcome of Differential Sensitivity to Environmental Risks in Schizophrenia. Author links open overlay panel Petra Habets a Machteld Marcelis a Ed Gronenschild a Marjan Drukker Petra Habets a Machteld Marcelis a Ed Gronenschild a Marjan Drukker.

The effects of injury vary with the precise age-at-injury, with the general result being that injury during cell migration and neuronal maturation has a poor functional outcome, whereas similar. Differential effects of motor cortical excitability and plasticity in young and old individuals: a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) study Shahid Bashir1,2, Jennifer M.

Perez1, Jared C. Horvath3, Cleofe Pena-Gomez4, Marine Vernet1, Anuhya Capia 1. The primary purpose of this study was to examine, using meta-analytical techniques, the differential effects of differing intensities of acute exercise on speed and accuracy of cognition.

Overall, exercise demonstrated a small, significant mean effect size (g =p less than ) on cognition. Examination of the comparison between speed and accuracy dependent variables showed that speed. A number of studies supportive of this theory have demonstrated that the motor cortex of adult mammals changes its activation patterns in response to cortical injuries.

Rat and non-human primate. The present list of genes affected by injury was compared with previously reported data from the mouse and rat cerebral cortex subjected to traumatic or ischemic injuries (Kobori et al., In both hemispheres the mean cortical thickness and folding area showed significant combination effects on cortical complexity and accounted for about 50% of its variance.

Milstein JA, Lehmann O, Theobald DE, Dalley JW, Robbins TW. Selective depletion of cortical noradrenaline by anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase-saporin impairs attentional function and enhances the effects of guanfacine in the rat. Psychopharmacology. ; – doi: /sx. [PMC free article]. Design and procedure.

For each trial, a central fixation point was displayed from 0 to ms, followed by sample displays containing a sequence of one, two, three, or four faces that appeared for ms at a time, followed by a ms delay interval, and then presentation of a probe face for ms (Fig.

1B).The sum of the duration of the fixation and sample displays was constant ( ms). The effect observed on total immobility, but not on latencies for immobility in the second session, could be due to a differential effect of both hormones on systems that mediate learning and.

To achieve these goals, we determined the effect of controlled cortical impact (CCI) on dendritic spine levels in the cortex and hippocampus of injured mice. We also measured the impact of the γ-secretase inhibitor LY on Aβ accumulation after TBI and its effect on injury.

Effects of motor imagery training after chronic, complete spinal cord injury. Exp. Brain Res. – /s [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]. Objective Systematic review of possible long-term effects of sports-related concussion in retired athletes. Data sources Ten electronic databases.

Study selection Original research; incidence, risk factors or causation related to long-term mental health or neurological problems; individuals who have suffered a concussion; retired athletes as the subjects and possible long-term sequelae defined.

Furthermore, differential correlation analysis provided additional evidence of metabolic dysregulation, most notably in brainstem and frontal cortex, suggesting that metabolic consequences of injury are persistent and widespread.

Interestingly, the patterns of network changes were region-specific. Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), is common among contact and collision sports participants. One definition of concussion is a condition in which there is a traumatically induced alteration in mental status, with or without an associated loss of consciousness (LOC).

Introduction. The location of chronic poststroke brain damage is typically based on T1-weighted, T2-weighted, or fluid attenuated inversion recovery MRI sequences. 1 – 3 These are principled techniques providing information about the extent of the cortical and subcortical lesions.

However, it is important to note that these methods may fail to detect the full extent of white matter injury. Mixed-effect ANOVA with the three groups from LCMM as a between-subjects factor and left and right hippocampal gray matter volume as a within-subjects factor revealed only a significant main effect of side due to overall more gray matter volume on the right compared with the left side (F (1,66) =p.

mulation, the Attentional Network Test, and gait analysis. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to longitudinally examine potential differences between groups and relationships in the pattern of recovery in cortical silent period (CSP) duration, cognitive reaction time, and single- and dual-task walking speeds across five testing time points.

Individuals with mTBI were assessed within 72 h of. matter injury. It is well known from animal and human stud-ies that cortical and subcortical strokes are associated with white matter injury and anterograde and retrograde Wallerian degeneration.4–6 Therefore, cortical disconnections as a result of white matter injury may occur in.

Although persons with tic disorders often experience aversive social reactions in response to tics, little is known about the behavioral effects of such consequences. Along several dimensions, the present study compared the effects of two treatments on tics: response cost (RC) and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO).

Chronic exposure to increased glucocorticoid concentrations appears to lower the threshold for hippocampal neuronal degeneration in the old rat. It has been proposed that increased brain exposure to glucocorticoids may lower the threshold for hippocampal neuronal degeneration in human aging and Alzheimer’s disease.

Here, we asked whether chronic administration of high-dose cortisol to older. an neutrophil functions. Methods Thirteen sedentary young males underwent an initial ASE (pedaling on a bicycle ergometer with increasing loads until exhaustion), and they were subsequently divided into exercise (n = 8) and control groups (n = 5).

The exercise group underwent 2 months of CME (pedaling on the ergometer at a moderate intensity for 30 min each day) followed by 2 months of. ) studied the effect of loading rate on the Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of human femoral cortical bone using one-dimensional wave theory and strain gages bonded to the surface of the bone in two directions at multiple locations.

Trauma: 1. Pathology. a body wound or shock produced by sudden physical injury, as from violence or accident. the condition produced by this; traumatism. atry. an experience that produces psychological injury or pain. the psychological injury so caused.

Differential effects of current specific treatments on behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a month, randomized, open-label trial.

J Alzheimers Dis. ; 39(3) (ISSN: ) Cumbo E; Ligori LD. The transitional state between normal aging and Alzheimer disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), has become a focus of research owing to the development of effective pharmacotherapy aimed at altering the natural history of the disease.

1,2 A number of brain structural abnormalities have been identified among patients with MCI with abnormal memory, including significant reduction in the. SUMMARY: The purpose of this article was to review the embryologic stages of the cerebral cortex, illustrate the classification of disorders of cortical formation, and finally describe the main MR imaging features of these disorders.

Disorders of cortical formation are classified according to the embryologic stage of the cerebral cortex at which the abnormality occurred. thletes from Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS) and 19 healthy, physically active undergraduate students participated in the study. Intervention: All participants completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS; short version) on 3 nonconsecutive days during a 2-week period after a baseline test.

Main Outcome Measures: Emotional responses were assessed using the POMS. The 7 main outcome. Effects of Differential Reinforcement, Physical Restraint and Verbal Reprimand on Stereotyped Body-Rocking. Jena, S. P. K. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, v18 n1 p A boy with severe mental retardation was unresponsive to his environment and spent 80% of his day body-rocking.

Stereotyped body-rocking was greatly.Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system histopathologically characterized by multifocal areas of myelin, oligodendrocyte, and axonal loss. 1 Although MS is regarded as a white matter (WM) disease, gray matter (GM) demyelination has also been described.

Immunohistochemical studies identified widespread subpial cortical demyelination in MS. Subpial lesions.cortical structure and function is repeated sensory input.2,3 The direct manipulation of sensory experience can modify brain plasticity and enhance the effects of motor training in chronic stroke patients.4,5 Muscle vibration is a strong proprioceptive stimulus, which, at low amplitudes, preferentially produces Ia afferent.

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